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Fraser of Allander

<em>Picture: garethjmsaunders</em>

Picture: garethjmsaunders

By Bill Scott

The UK government has announced £18 billion of cuts to welfare benefits over the period 2011–15. Independent think tanks such as Demos estimate that £9.2bn of these cuts will fall on households containing a disabled person.

However, the impact in Scotland will be disproportionately large. Altogether, £2bn (11 per cent) of the benefit cuts are falling on Scotland, though we have only just over 8 per cent of the UK population. Over £1bn is being taken from Scottish disabled people and their families.

Why is this? Well, firstly, the UK government has targeted some key benefits paid to disabled people for cuts such as Disability Living Allowance (DLA) and the Employment and Support Allowance (ESA). But other benefit cuts will also have a disproportionate impact, because disabled people are more likely to be reliant on benefits for some or all of their income.

Scotland will suffer more than its fair share of these cuts because we have more people with impairments and health conditions than other areas of the UK. For example, we have the highest rate of multiple sclerosis anywhere in the world. We also have a legacy of industrial disease and injury from the former concentration of heavy industries in Scotland.

Three Scottish local authority areas are among the 20 UK local authorities with the highest proportion of Incapacity Benefit claimants: 12.3 per cent of all working-age adults in Glasgow, 12.2 per cent in Inverclyde and 10.7 per cent in West Dunbartonshire. (ESA is gradually replacing this benefit.) In contrast, only 2–4 per cent of working-age adults claim Incapacity Benefit in large parts of southern England.

By spring 2014, all disabled people currently receiving incapacity benefit will be subjected to a Work Capability Assessment (WCA) for ESA. Those assessed as fully capable of work are sent to claim Jobseeker’s Allowance or Income Support, both paid at a lower rate, or moved off benefits entirely.

Those who cannot work or have limited capability to work move on to ESA. Yet nearly 40 per cent of those who appeal assessments that they are fit for work have that decision overturned on appeal, and the proportion of successful appeals rises to 70 per cent if the disabled person is accompanied by a Citizens Advice Bureau adviser. This has resulted in tens of thousands of disabled people being denied their proper entitlement to benefits and put through months of misery waiting for their appeals to be heard.

The government also proposes to time-limit contributory ESA to 12 months. That, combined with disabled people in a large proportion of cases wrongly being found fit for work, will result in annual losses to Scottish disabled people of £378m by 2014–15. If all those who were in receipt of contributory ESA in May 2011 remain in receipt of the benefit in April 2012, then around 23,700 Scots will lose their entitlement to ESA overnight.

The government also intends to reduce the amount of DLA paid out by 20 per cent. For Scotland, this means benefit losses to claimants of £268m annually. The Personal Independence Payment (PIP) will replace DLA in 2013–14. But there is no equivalent under PIP to the lower rate care element of DLA. That means that all current working-age recipients of lower rate care, some 60,000 disabled people, are likely to lose their current entitlement.

From April 2013, housing benefit for working-age people in social rented homes will be linked to the size of property that the government believes they need. The Equality Impact Assessments by the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) show that, across the UK, of a total of 670,000 households affected by this change, about 450,000 (66 per cent) will contain a disabled person.

The Scottish government estimates that 95,000 Scottish households will be affected. If the DWP’s two-thirds estimate holds good, then at least 62,000 of those households will contain a disabled person. They are likely to lose an average of £13 per week in housing benefit. Coming on top of the cuts to disabled people’s incomes through losing ESA or DLA, this is likely to lead to thousands of individuals and families becoming homeless as they will not have the means to pay the increased rents.

All in all, the cumulative impact of the welfare reforms that the UK government is imposing will have a devastating impact on tens of thousands of Scotland’s most vulnerable citizens, and there is no doubt that thousands, perhaps tens of thousands will face poverty and destitution. The demand on social and health services due to this human devastation is likely to rise dramatically.

The economic impact on deprived communities is also likely to be immense. Using previous estimates by the Fraser of Allander Institute, Inclusion Scotland believes that the £2bn loss in spending power could result in over 40,000 job losses – mainly in the retail and service sectors.

Perversely, these job losses will fall heaviest on those communities which are already struggling economically, as disabled people and other claimants are concentrated in social housing and communities suffering multiple deprivation.

Inclusion Scotland supports the principle that all disabled people should be empowered to live independently. These heartless benefit cuts will end that hope and replace it with a struggle to live at all.

Bill Scott is the manager of Inclusion Scotland.

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'Toxic mix of unemployment and low growth' – Johann Lamont <em>Picture: Scottish parliament</em>

'Toxic mix of unemployment and low growth' – Johann Lamont Picture: Scottish parliament

The latest figures on the Scottish economy offer a confused picture. Unemployment rose in Scotland by 19,000 to 231,000 in the three months from September to November. That is likely to get worse if the Bank of Scotland’s Report on Jobs proves to be a reliable barometer, since it shows that the labour maket “lost further momentum” last month.

In the view of Donald MacRae, the bank’s chief economist, the jobs market is reflecting the slowdown in the Scottish economy. “Growth in the number of vacancies slowed,” he says, “while the number of people appointed to jobs fell for the first time in 15 months. The economy is struggling to maintain growth momentum in the face of the global slowdown.”

The Office for National Statistics reports that the number of people claiming benefit fell by 1,400 in December. However, it is up 3,100 on a year ago to a new total of 140,900. All told, it means that the Scottish unemployment rate is now 8.6 per cent, higher than the UK average of 8.4 per cent. Unemployment across the UK rose by 118,000 to 2.68 million.

The news prompted the Scottish finance secretary, John Swinney, to repeat his call for a UK-wide jobs summit to agree an immediate programme of employment creation. “These new figures,” he explained, “show that there is a need for further sustained activity to support Scotland’s economic recovery.

“That is why the Scottish government is using every lever currently available to us to secure new investment and create and safeguard jobs, including our new initiative this week to establish four enterprise areas for Scotland.”

According to Scottish secretary, Michael Moore, “There can be no clearer signal we need to focus on getting the economy back to health than the rise in unemployment shown by these figures. We have to get Scotland back to work and it is imperative we keep making the right decisions to support and grow our economy.”

But Scottish Labour described the news as “a bleak day” for Scotland. Party leader Johann Lamont talked of Scotland being “in the grip of a national crisis, with unemployment figures reaching disaster levels and even worse than the rest of the UK. We face a toxic mix of unemployment and low growth in Scotland. This needs a crisis response from the Scottish government.”

That was a view shared by Grahame Smith, general secretary of the Scottish Trades Union Congress (STUC). “The recent rise in Scottish unemployment is as dramatic as it is shocking,” he said. “As late as November last year Fraser of Allander were forecasting unemployment of 234,000 by the end of 2012; we are nearly there already.

“The coalition government,” he added, “needs to urgently consider whether it regards high and rising unemployment as a priority issue. If it does, then the problem demands a wholesale revisiting of its failing economic strategy. As things stand there is almost no prospect of the labour market improving over the next couple of years and Scotland is almost doomed to exit this depression with significantly higher levels of structural unemployment”.

By contrast, the Federation of Small Businesses in Scotland said concerted action was needed to encourage job creation and confidence in the Scottish economy. In the view of Andy Willox, Scottish policy convener, “Action on spiralling small business overheads could give firms the boost they need. Only by taking co-ordinated action right across local, Scottish and UK government will we stand a chance of turning this worrying situation around.”

But it is not all bad news. There appears to be some hope from the latest Index of Manufactured Exports for the third quarter of 2011. It found that Scottish manufactured export sales grew by 0.2 per cent in real terms over that period. On an annual basis, it suggests that manufactured export sales grew 2.7 per cent in real terms year-on-year.

It prompted CBI Scotland‘s director, Iain McMillan, to say that “This latest official data shows a welcome continuation in the growth of Scottish exports, reflecting the findings in our own latest industrial trends survey, but does point to a loss of momentum over recent quarters.

“The Scottish administration has set a welcome target for export growth, but they need to put much more flesh on the bones as to how this step change in performance will be achieved. It cannot solely to be left to the enterprise agencies. That is why we have called on Scottish ministers to provide pump-prime funding to help establish more direct air connections to key overseas business destinations and hubs, in order to make it easier for Scots firms to access new markets and service overseas customers more effectively.”

By contrast, the latest gross domestic product figures for the Scottish economy show that the country has been hit by a fourth consecutive quarter of stagnation, especially in the construction industry. In the third quarter of 2011, output from the sector fell by 1.2 per cent, leading Scottish Building Federation chief executive Michael Levack to comment that “we have now witnessed a full year of economic output figures where the Scottish construction sector has been on a consistent downward path.

“Looking at the corresponding employment statistics, this translates to the loss of 30,000 construction jobs – or more than 15 per cent of the workforce between September 2010 and September 2011. I can only reiterate my plea to ministers at Westminster and Holyrood to re-assess their spending priorities in favour of greater capital investment, to accelerate badly needed reforms to the planning and procurement systems to help get more projects off the ground and to further bolster support for apprenticeships and skills development in our industry.”

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